Introduction. OECD Green Growth Indicators Framework and country context

This chapter introduces the OECD Green Growth Indicators (GGIs) framework, developed to monitor progress towards a green economy in OECD member states, and its pilot application in Uzbekistan

1.1 Introduction to the OECD green growth indicators framework

1.2 Country context and national processes with relevance to a green economy

1.1 Introduction to the OECD green growth indicators framework

  • The OECD defines green growth as “fostering economic growth and development while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which our well-being relies”. It is the point where twin challenges meet – the need to expand economic opportunities, while addressing environmental pressures. It is also about exploiting the opportunities to realise the two together (OECD, 2017).
  • In 2011, the OECD developed a green growth monitoring framework to support implementation of a Green Growth Strategy in its member countries. Since then, it has been widely applied among OECD members and beyond, including in Central Asia (CA) (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan). The approach is kept flexible to allow adaptation to the national context.
  • Green economy policies need to be supported with appropriate indicators to monitor progress. The OECD Green Growth Indicators (GGIs) framework helps countries to:

    • track and communicate progress in greening economic growth

    • make informed decisions

    • demonstrate accountability to national and international stakeholders

    • raise public awareness about the links between economic growth and the environment

    • compare progress with other countries

  • The GGIs framework comprises 26 main indicators grouped around four dimensions of green growth:

    • environmental and resource productivity of the economy

    • natural asset base

    • environmental dimension of quality of life

    • economic opportunities and policy responses

  • The GGIs framework also captures information on the socio-economic context of a country to complement the four green growth dimensions.

1.2 Country context and national processes with relevance to a green economy

  • Uzbekistan is the world’s 42nd largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter with a 0.37% share in 2019; It is the second largest emitter in CA, after Kazakhstan and its emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) are the fifth largest in the world. In 2019, the government adopted a strategy for transition to a green economy by 2030 to reverse this trend, framing the country’s strategic vision to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation.
  • The national green priorities couple with Uzbekistan’s ambitious international commitments. In 2018, the government adopted the 2030 Agenda, including commitments to environmental indicators. In 2021, as part of its commitment to the Paris Agreement, the government pledged at the 26th session of the UN Convention on Climate Change (COP26) to reduce GHG emissions per unit of GDP by 35% in 2030 compared to the 2010 level. In 2022, the country joined the Global Methane Pledge to achieve the collective goal of reducing methane emissions by 30% by 2030 compared to the 2020 level (190.6 megatonnes of CO2-eq).
  • In 2022, a Green growth monitoring framework, consisting of eight indicators was introduced as part of the “Decree of the President on measures to improve the effectiveness of reforms aimed at the transition of Uzbekistan to a ‘green’ economy until 2030” (hereafter “the national Green Growth Strategic Framework, or GGSF).
  • The national SDG indicators, the eight GGSF Programme and Action Plan indicators and the OECD GGIs partially overlap. It is vital to ensure these three monitoring streams complement. Although the national SDGs and the 2030 GGSF have a set of target values used in the monitoring processes, the OECD-based GGIs do not require established targets. Rather, they show a trend over time for supporting policy makers to make informed decisions. The OECD GGIs also enable comparison of Uzbekistan with other countries.
  • This work is the first attempt to assess Uzbekistan’s progress towards a green economy using a set of OECD GGIs adapted to the national context. The report unveils historical green growth trends between 1991 and 2022 or the latest data available.

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